Game Theory: The Science of Decision-Making

Share
HTML-code
  • Published: 30 September 2016
  • With up to ten years in prison at stake, will Wanda rat Fred out? Game theory is looking at human interactions through the lens of mathematics.

    Hosted by: Hank Green
    ----------
    Support SciShow by becoming a patron on Patreon: patreon.com/scishow
    ----------
    Dooblydoo thanks go to the following Patreon supporters -- we couldn't make SciShow without them! Shout out to Kevin Bealer, Justin Lentz, Mark Terrio-Cameron, Patrick Merrithew, Accalia Elementia, Fatima Iqbal, Benny, Kyle Anderson, Mike Frayn, Tim Curwick, Will and Sonja Marple, Philippe von Bergen, Chris Peters, Kathy Philip, Patrick D. Ashmore, Thomas J., charles george, and Bader AlGhamdi.
    ----------
    Like SciShow? Want to help support us, and also get things to put on your walls, cover your torso and hold your liquids? Check out our awesome products over at DFTBA Records: dftba.com/scishow
    ----------
    Looking for SciShow elsewhere on the internet?
    Facebook: facebook.com/scishow
    Twitter: twitter.com/scishow
    Tumblr: scishow.tumblr.com
    Instagram: instagram.com/thescishow
    ----------
    Sources:
    khanacademy.org/economics-finance-domain/microeconomics/nash-equilibrium-tutorial
    levine.sscnet.ucla.edu/general/whatis.htm
    assets.cambridge.org/97805213/61774/sample/9780521361774ws.pdf
    iloverimini.mobi/user/watch?v=qcLZMYPdpH4
    link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-349-20181-5_1
    gametheory.net/dictionary/Game.html

    Image Links:
    en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Forbes_Nash_Jr.

Comments • 2 258

  • KYROS CELL SIRUV
    KYROS CELL SIRUV  22 hours back

    Whatever I knew about game theory is gone now. You've successfully confused me.

    • Uche Nwogwugwu
      Uche Nwogwugwu  1 days back

      The lecture is just a tour on Game and a good introduction. We can dig deeper

      • Lalo Chifrin
        Lalo Chifrin  1 weeks back

        Thanks

        • BUX BE
          BUX BE  1 weeks back

          I've just realised Nash is an idiot.

          • BUX BE
            BUX BE  1 weeks back

            Game theory is inherently empowering or not. How can Prisoners Dilemma be unbiased? As you said, it is affected by other decisions. What influenced that decision, and so forth? So, what matters is if you are empowered, or only interested in power.

            • Arturo Balvino
              Arturo Balvino  1 weeks back

              8:32 Thats wrong. If the 20c (cookie) guy is making twice as much as the 10c guy, that's a ratio of of 2\1.

              The extra $10 should be split with 20c getting 2 thirds of that and and 10c getting only one third of the extra $10.

              $13.33 & $26.67

              At least i think.

              • Himanshu Singh
                Himanshu Singh  1 weeks back

                8:50 Damn! That's true Man...

                • dijin456
                  dijin456  2 weeks back

                  Finite & infinite play..3rd possibility

                  • Game-F-UN-Limited gamer

                    But what if they both know game theory and are smart to guess that the other person will choose to confess and think that they would expect the same?

                    • mjaafreh2008
                      mjaafreh2008  3 weeks back

                      It doesn't make sense!!
                      I mean in the cooky example he said that both should get 5 cookies from the extra 10 cookies, but calculating that the second guy is faster ( he can make 20 cookies in his own), the first guy can produce only 50 % working alone, so I think a fair split would be the first guy to take 33. 33% of the ten extra cookies and the second to take 66.66 because he contributed more.. The split would be 10+3.33 = 13.33 for the first guy and 20+6.66 for the second guy, now if you divided 26.66 on 13.33 you will get 2 which is the exact number we started with, the se ond guy makes two times the first guy, this is why he deserves two times (6.66) what the first guy deserves (3.33)... Makes sense?

                      • domochaos
                        domochaos  3 weeks back

                        Yugioh.........yugioh

                        • charles ludo
                          charles ludo  4 weeks back

                          BS , they both serve 2 years . Any criminals have to have enough comaradrie to engauge in the crime game to begin with etc etc . This is probably why Amerika lost Iraq ... so smart .

                          • Aussie Gypsy
                            Aussie Gypsy  4 weeks back

                            Well rule 2 definitely doesnt apply to the UN & the Paris Agreement

                            • R V
                              R V  4 weeks back

                              the color code is wrong. Rows are the 2nd numbers and columns are the first numbers. Otherwise when you compute the best responses its wrong.

                              • Pietro Speroni di Fenizio

                                everybody seems to be correcting the video, so I will also join the chorus. FOr once that I can. The winning strategy in the prisoner's dilemma is to defect only if the game is played only once. If you play another version which is repetitive prisoner dilemma, the winning strategy end up TfT (tiit for tat) where each player starts to cooperate and then copies the behaviour of the other player in the previous round.

                                • Daniel Bojkovski
                                  Daniel Bojkovski  1 months back

                                  Yeah but is just a a Theory...

                                  • Jackie Tate
                                    Jackie Tate  1 months back

                                    Here is an issue.

                                    Bob works in a factory. He CAN contribute, but his contribution has been nullified because it has become more cost effective to give his job to a robot.

                                    So, Bob no longer contributes to society. But, Bob, theoretically could. Just not competitively in an automated capitalist market.

                                    What do you do with Bob?

                                    If you let him stick around then he becomes a threat. Homeless and impoverished he naturally socializes with countless others like him. Hungry, angry, and homeless they vote to take the money from the rich. At least in a democracy the mob robs the rich. But, the rich can see this coming and they take prevention measures and Bob and his friends are left with insurection.

                                    You could pay Bob to just sit at home and read. But, in the long term strategy this only works out for Bob if there remains a majority of unemployed dependants like himself. So, Bob and friends have as many kids as possible. Which means the rich will have to support more and more Bobs.

                                    Alternatively, the rich can wait until they have enough of production automated that they can do without the poor. Then they kill them all off and leave only a minority of workers.

                                    Game theory appears to suggest that the best best option for Bob is to revolt as soon as possible before he losses his strategic edge, and the rich should kill off Bob as soon as they can survive without him.

                                    Revolution seems to be the most rational course, perhaps inevitable here. And the one who waits for the other to attack during their strategic advantage, losses.

                                    • Azazel
                                      Azazel  2 months back

                                      But that is Just a theory a game theory ANDDD CUT

                                      • Sebastian Pezzino
                                        Sebastian Pezzino  2 months back

                                        Game theory is a YouTube channel idiot

                                        • OUTSIDER40
                                          OUTSIDER40  2 months back

                                          Good job 👍

                                          • Alberto Asencio
                                            Alberto Asencio  2 months back

                                            Nice video!!!!

                                            • Sadique
                                              Sadique  2 months back

                                              What about Solitaire?

                                              • AriAnimates
                                                AriAnimates  2 months back

                                                Game theory is where matpat gets triggered by Scott cawthon

                                                • Steady Of The Heart
                                                  Steady Of The Heart  2 months back

                                                  Video also did not acknowledge the seminal game theory work of John von Neumann. See his book Theory of Games and Economic Behavior.

                                                  • Albireo
                                                    Albireo  2 months back

                                                    Game theory proves simply how communism is neither possible nor achievable by/for humans.
                                                    So... Why people keeps trying what is clearly a complete failure?

                                                    • Peter Knagge
                                                      Peter Knagge  2 months back

                                                      Game theory proves capitalism is a corrupt lie and failure too, and there is a more successful way to operate.
                                                      In many ways "democracy" is even worse than communism, and caused even more death, poverty and destruction.

                                                  • Avi Sandhu
                                                    Avi Sandhu  2 months back

                                                    Wow

                                                    • Logan Stroganoff
                                                      Logan Stroganoff  2 months back

                                                      Game theory sounds like a pick up artists vlog name

                                                      • WealthAuthor
                                                        WealthAuthor  2 months back

                                                        This is why US-china trade war is a lose-lose scenario

                                                        • Cristian Blanaru
                                                          Cristian Blanaru  3 months back

                                                          Depends of the country. In some countreys if both don't confess each one will take 10 years cause justice will lie them about the other.

                                                          • Alex Minsky
                                                            Alex Minsky  3 months back

                                                            Game theory is a jerk! Loved it.

                                                            • Bryan Slankster
                                                              Bryan Slankster  3 months back

                                                              Ha, if the only way a person got paid was per contribution, then everyone should contribute. But the system doesn't work that way. I don't see my moral obligation to play a game with different rules for different people.

                                                              • Noctumus
                                                                Noctumus  3 months back

                                                                You have _got_ to be related to Devin Townsend somehow!
                                                                https://cdn.mos.cms.futurecdn.net/3TyARfjwtwfay7jjZvT7eS.jpg

                                                                • Le Duc Anh
                                                                  Le Duc Anh  3 months back

                                                                  How would it be fair for the 2 bakers? While the one that makes 10 cookies has 50% gain from his usual and the more productive one only gains 25%. The less productive one definitely gain more than the other.
                                                                  Personally i think it should be based on their the solo performance before they group up.

                                                                  • Andres crespo
                                                                    Andres crespo  3 months back

                                                                    Le Duc Anh it’s called the division of labour

                                                                • ricshmitzUK
                                                                  ricshmitzUK  3 months back

                                                                  Balls

                                                                  • Lackishungry 2
                                                                    Lackishungry 2  3 months back

                                                                    And hey, it’s just a theory, A GAME THEORY

                                                                    • You better think Twice
                                                                      You better think Twice  3 months back

                                                                      Can someone teach me about game theory for political case 😞🙏
                                                                      Thanks before

                                                                      • O'Bu Mar'Konash
                                                                        O'Bu Mar'Konash  3 months back

                                                                        Life don't have to be this complicated, just bake da damn cookies and enjoy 😂💀

                                                                        • Johnathan Grey
                                                                          Johnathan Grey  3 months back

                                                                          You probably don't know there's a crack in the math system. Lol.

                                                                          • pspthegr8
                                                                            pspthegr8  3 months back

                                                                            SciShow is to science what TMZ is to filmmaking. i.e. irrelevant and unreliable.

                                                                            • Frans Nahapiet
                                                                              Frans Nahapiet  3 months back

                                                                              This leads to confessions even though maybe both are innocent.

                                                                              • daniel Legler
                                                                                daniel Legler  3 months back

                                                                                What is climate change? That tells me nothing about the narrative of this story.

                                                                                • Halloween Jack
                                                                                  Halloween Jack  4 months back

                                                                                  I think it says a lot about our society that of the many times I have heard about the prisoner's dilemma, no one has ever mentioned that not only does it convict a pair of innocent people with the 'game' mentality, if one person is guilty and the other is innocent the innocent person goes up the river for 10 years.

                                                                                  • Bianicman Epic Videos
                                                                                    Bianicman Epic Videos  4 months back

                                                                                    Where is scishow Bob?

                                                                                    • John Doe
                                                                                      John Doe  4 months back

                                                                                      this is an awful video.

                                                                                      • John Doe
                                                                                        John Doe  4 months back

                                                                                        game theory does not specify what should be done. in fact, based on the design, they should both not rat each other... what game theory says is that they WILL rat each other out

                                                                                        • Autumn 46
                                                                                          Autumn 46  4 months back

                                                                                          I don't think I would apply the Shapely value equation in real life.


                                                                                          If I were the cookie wizard, I'd be pissed that my unskilled partner got a 50% raise and I only received a 25% raise. In actuality, cookie wizard is 2 times better and his or her revenue should also be 2 times higher. I would ratio it out.

                                                                                          • Abdullahi Osman
                                                                                            Abdullahi Osman  3 months back

                                                                                            I agree, cookie monster should get 26.67 and the other dude 13.33. That's what instinct tells me.

                                                                                        • Aditya Ghosh
                                                                                          Aditya Ghosh  4 months back

                                                                                          Hey everyone, I made this video on Game Theory seen from a new perspective, about how it relates to cold war and arms races. I think you'll find it really interesting.

                                                                                          https://youtu.be/Q4ohFOB3ny4

                                                                                          • Nuada the silver hand
                                                                                            Nuada the silver hand  4 months back

                                                                                            Huh, every other description of the prisoners' dilemma I've ever watched mentions that you're always better off defecting, but then states the optimal known strategy to score the fewest years (or the most points) on average to be tit for tat, or some variant thereof.

                                                                                            Gotta say I'm a little disappointed in you.